The rational design, synthesis and complexation characteristics of several monovalent cation-selective ligands are described. Molecular modeling employing a combination of dynamics, mechanics (AMBER94) and electrostatics was used to design ligands for the complexation of ammonium, potassium, sodium and lithium ions. A modular technique was used to synthesize an ammonium selective ionophore based on a cyclic depsipeptide structure (8). The ionophore was incorporated into a planar ion selective electrode (ISE) sensor format and the selectivity tested versus a range of metal cations. It was found that the membrane containing the polar plasticizer NPOE (nitrophenyloctylether) in the absence of ionic additive exhibited near-Nernstian behavior (slope = 60.1 mV/dec @ 37¢ªC) and possessed high selectivity for ammonium ion over lithium and the divalent cations, calcium and magnesium (logK = -7.3, -4.4, -7.1 for lithium, calcium and magnesium ions, respectively). The same membrane also exhibited sodium and potassium selectivity that was comparable to that reported for nonactin (logK = -2.1, -0.6 for sodium and potassium, respectively, compared to -2.4, -0.9 in the case of nonactin). N-(9-methylanthracene)-25,27-bis(1-propyloxy)calixarene-azacrown-5 (10) was synthesized and tested as a fluoroionophore for the selective detection of potassium ions. Compound 10 acts as an ¡°off-on¡± fluorescent indicator for ion complexation as a result of photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer (PET). Studies demonstrate that 10 is selective for potassium over other alkali metal cations, with excellent selectivity over sodium and lithium (log K ¡ -3.5) and moderate selectivity over rubidium and cesium (log K ~ -1). N-(9-methylanthracene)-25,27-bis(1-propyloxy)-4-tert-butylcalixarene-azacrown-3 (11) was synthesized and tested as a fluoroionophore for the selective detection of lithium cations. When exposed to lithium ions in a 75:25 dichloromethane/THF solvent mixture, the molecule, which operates on PET, exhibited a >106-fold enhancement in fluorescence emission intensity. Selectivity studies demonstrated that 11 effectively discriminates against sodium and potassium ions log K ¡ -3.8 and log K ¡ -2.3. A fluorescent sodium optode based on a fluoroionophore consisting of aminorhodamine B covalently-linked through an amide bond to a calixarene has also been developed (12). The optode, fashioned by incorporation of the fluoroionophore into a single component polymer matrix, operates on the basis of PET. The fluorescence intensity increased linearly with increasing sodium ion concentration in the range 0.01 M to 2.0 M, exhibiting a three-fold enhancement over this range. The optode provides selectivity for sodium ions compared to potassium ions that is sufficient for clinical determinations of sodium ion concentration.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Chemistry & Biochemistry
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Benco, J. S. (2003). The Rational Design and Synthesis of Ionophores and Fluoroionophores for the Selective Detection of Monovalent Cations. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.wpi.edu/etd-dissertations/103
ionophore, fluoroionophore, Ionophores, Cations