In spite of major research initiatives by DARPA and other research organizations, precise indoor geolocation still remains as a challenge facing the research community. The core of this challenge is to understand the cause of large ranging errors in estimating the time of arrival (TOA) of the direct path between the transmitter and the receiver. Results of wideband measurement in variety of indoor areas reveal that large ranging errors are caused by severe multipath conditions and frequent occurrence of undetected direct path (UDP) situations. Empirical models for the behavior of the ranging error, which we refer to as the distance measurement error (DME), its relation to the distance between the transmitter and the receiver and the bandwidth of the system is needed for development of localization algorithms for precise indoor geolocation. The main objective of this dissertation is to design a direct empirical model for the behavior of the DME. In order to achieve this objective we provide a framework for modeling of DME, which relates the error to the distance between the transmitter and the receiver and bandwidth of the system. Using this framework we first designed a set of preliminary models for the behavior of the DME based on the CWINS proprietary measurement calibrated ray-tracing simulation tool. Then, we collected a database of 2934 UWB channel impulse response measurements at 3-8GHz in four different buildings to incorporate a variety of building materials and architectures. This database was used for the design of more in depth and realistic models for the behavior of the DME. The DME is divided into two components, Multipath-DME (MDME) and UDP-DME (UDME). Based on the empirical data, models for the behavior of each of these components are developed. These models reflect the sensitivity to bandwidth and show that by increasing the bandwidth MDME decreases. However in UDME the behavior is complicated. At first it reduces as we increase the bandwidth but after a certain bandwidth it starts to increase. In addition to these models through an analysis on direct path power versus the total power the average probability of having a UDP was calculated.


Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Degree Name



Electrical & Computer Engineering

Project Type


Date Accepted





Ranging Error, Ranging, Positioning, Indoor Geolocation, Distance Measurement Error, Broadband communication systems, Distances, Measurement, Indoor geolocation systems