Faculty Advisor

Professor Kaveh Pahlavan

Faculty Advisor

Professor Sergey Makarov

Faculty Advisor

Dr. Yishuang Geng

Faculty Advisor

Professor Yousef Mahmoud




"The time-of-arrival (ToA)-based localization technique performs superior in line-of-sight (LoS) conditions, and its accuracy degrades drastically in proximity of micro-metals and human body, when LoS conditions are not met. This calls for modeling and formulation of Direct Path (DP) to help with mitigation of ranging error. However, the current propagation tools and models are mainly designed for telecommunication applications via focus on delay spread of wireless channel profile, whereas ToA-based localization strive for modeling of DP component. This thesis provides a mitigation to the limitation of existing propagation tools and models to computationally capture the effects of micro-metals and human body on ToA-based indoor localization. Solutions for each computational technique are validated by empirical measurements using Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB) signals. Finite- Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical method is used to estimate the ranging errors, and a combination of Uniform-Theory-of-Diffraction (UTD) ray theory and geometrical ray optics properties are utilized to model the path-loss and the ToA of the DP obstructed by micro- metals. Analytical UTD ray theory and geometrical ray optics properties are exploited to model the path-loss and the ToA of the first path obstructed by the human body for the scattering scenarios. The proposed scattering solution expanded to analytically model the path-loss and ToA of the DP obstructed by human body in angular motion for the radiation scenarios."


Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Degree Name



Electrical & Computer Engineering

Project Type


Date Accepted





Human Body, ToA, Computational Methods, FDTD, Ray Theory, Metallic Objects