Faculty Advisor or Committee Member

Sergey N. Makarov, Advisor

Faculty Advisor or Committee Member

Reinhold Ludwig, Committee Member

Faculty Advisor or Committee Member

William R. Michalson, Committee Member

Faculty Advisor or Committee Member

Faranak Nekoogar, Committee Member




"In the design of any antenna radiator, single or multi-element, a significant amount of time and resources is spent on impedance matching. There are broadly two approaches to impedance matching; the first is the distributed impedance matching approach which leads to modifying the antenna geometry itself by identifying appropriate degrees of freedom within the structure. The second option is the lumped element approach to impedance matching. In this approach instead of modifying the antenna geometry a passive network attempts to equalize the impedance mismatch between the source and the antenna load. This thesis introduces a new technique of impedance matching using lumped circuits (passive, lossless) for electrically small (short) non-resonant dipole/monopole antennas. A closed form upper-bound on the achievable transducer gain (and therefore the reflection coefficient) is derived starting with the Bode-Fano criterion. A 5 element equalizer is proposed which can equalize all dipole/monopole like antennas. Simulation and experimental results confirm our hypothesis. The second contribution of this thesis is in the design of broadband, small size, modular arrays (2, 4, 8 or 16 elements) using the distributed approach to impedance matching. The design of arrays comprising a small number of elements cannot follow the infinite array design paradigm. Instead, the central idea is to find a single optimized radiator (unit cell) which if used to build the 2x1, 4x1, 2x2 arrays, etc. (up to a 4x4 array) will provide at least the 2:1 bandwidth with a VSWR of 2:1 and stable directive gain (not greater than 3 dB variation) in each configuration. Simulation and experimental results for a solution to the 2x1, 4x1 and 2x2 array configurations is presented. "


Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Degree Name



Electrical & Computer Engineering

Project Type


Date Accepted





broadband impedance matching, electrically small antennas, dipoles, modular arrays