The increasing use of Point of Care (POC) ultrasound presents a challenge in providing efficient training to new POC ultrasound users. In response to this need, we have developed an affordable, compact, laptop-based obstetric ultrasound training simulator. It offers freehand ultrasound scan on an abdomen-sized scan surface with a 5 degrees of freedom sham transducer and utilizes 3D ultrasound image volumes as training material. On the simulator user interface is rendered a virtual torso, whose body surface models the abdomen of a particular pregnant scan subject. A virtual transducer scans the virtual torso, by following the sham transducer movements on the scan surface. The obstetric ultrasound training is self-paced and guided by the simulator using a set of tasks, which are focused on three broad areas, referred to as modules: 1) medical ultrasound basics, 2) orientation to obstetric space, and 3) fetal biometry. A learner completes the scan training through the following three steps: (i) watching demonstration videos, (ii) practicing scan skills by sequentially completing the tasks in Modules 2 and 3, with scan evaluation feedback and help functions available, and (iii) a final scan exercise on new image volumes for assessing the acquired competency. After each training task has been completed, the simulator evaluates whether the task has been carried out correctly or not, by comparing anatomical landmarks identified and/or measured by the learner to reference landmark bounds created by algorithms, or pre-inserted by experienced sonographers. Based on the simulator, an ultrasound E-training system has been developed for the medical practitioners for whom ultrasound training is not accessible at local level. The system, composed of a dedicated server and multiple networked simulators, provides synchronous and asynchronous training modes, and is able to operate with a very low bit rate. The synchronous (or group-learning) mode allows all training participants to observe the same 2D image in real-time, such as a demonstration by an instructor or scan ability of a chosen learner. The synchronization of 2D images on the different simulators is achieved by directly transmitting the position and orientation of the sham transducer, rather than the ultrasound image, and results in a system performance independent of network bandwidth. The asynchronous (or self-learning) mode is described in the previous paragraph. However, the E-training system allows all training participants to stay networked to communicate with each other via text channel. To verify the simulator performance and training efficacy, we conducted several performance experiments and clinical evaluations. The performance experiment results indicated that the simulator was able to generate greater than 30 2D ultrasound images per second with acceptable image quality on medium-priced computers. In our initial experiment investigating the simulator training capability and feasibility, three experienced sonographers individually scanned two image volumes on the simulator. They agreed that the simulated images and the scan experience were adequately realistic for ultrasound training; the training procedure followed standard obstetric ultrasound protocol. They further noted that the simulator had the potential for becoming a good supplemental training tool for medical students and resident doctors. A clinic study investigating the simulator training efficacy was integrated into the clerkship program of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center. A total of 24 3rd year medical students were recruited and each of them was directed to scan six image volumes on the simulator in two 2.5-hour sessions. The study results showed that the successful scan times for the training tasks significantly decreased as the training progressed. A post-training survey answered by the students found that they considered the simulator-based training useful and suitable for medical students and resident doctors. The experiment to validate the performance of the E-training system showed that the average transmission bit rate was approximately 3-4 kB/s; the data loss was less than 1% and no loss of 2D images was visually detected. The results also showed that the 2D images on all networked simulators could be considered to be synchronous even though inter-continental communication existed.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
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Liu, L. (2016). An Affordable Portable Obstetric Ultrasound Simulator for Synchronous and Asynchronous Scan Training. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.wpi.edu/etd-dissertations/444
Education, Simulation, Obstetric, Ultrasound