Faculty Advisor or Committee Member

Guillermo F. Salazar, Advisor

Faculty Advisor or Committee Member

Frederick L. Hart, Department Head




Design changes during construction, which are typical in most projects, lead to increased cost, loss of productivity and delays. These changes are usually due to approved scope changes or due to design errors and omissions (E&Os) found in the construction documents. Errors and omissions are typically manifested in terms of incorrect or inconsistent dimensions and layouts in the construction documents, or by the lack of timely and correct information that it is needed to build the project or to meet the code requirements. Among others, E&Os are usually caused by poor coordination and communication among the many parties involved in the design process. The objective of this research is to explore the extent to which change orders resulting from errors and omissions in the design documents are caused by poor coordination and communications, and to determine the extent to which the use of the concept of the 3D parametric building model can be used to minimize or eliminate E&Os, hence minimizes total change orders. The concept of the 3D parametric building model has been implemented in commercial software using object-oriented technology. It creates a centralized database storing all the information about the design components as well as their interrelationships. Thus, whatever change is made is consistently propagated to the entire design object. The research was conducted through reviewing of the literature, a case study and a web-based survey among design professionals. The study revealed that 35% of E&Os are primarily due to poor coordination and that the use of 3D parametric building model has a significant impact on productivity and on improving the coordination of the design process. This model shows promising results in helping to minimize errors and omissions in the design documents.


Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Degree Name



Civil & Environmental Engineering

Project Type


Date Accepted





Change orders, Change orders due to errors&omissions, 3D parametric building modeling, CAD systems, Project design coordination, Design documents, Construction industry, Cost control, Project management, Data processing, Building, Cost control, Change orders