Faculty Advisor

Paul Mathisen

Faculty Advisor

John Bergendahl


"Tris-2-chlorethyl phosphate (TCEP) is a flame retardant and plasticizer that has been detected in drinking water sources and wastewater effluents in many countries. TCEP has been proven to be a recalcitrant compound that is also toxic and carcinogenic. The incomplete removal of TCEP in water and wastewater treatment plants necessitates that treatment processes be identified or developed that will completely remove TCEP from waters. Ozonation has been successfully used as an oxidant to degrade many problematic contaminants in water and wastewater. This research examined the effectiveness of ozone and ozone/hydrogen peroxide oxidation for removing TCEP from water. In laboratory experiments, batch reactions of TCEP solutions were conducted in purified water at different pH conditions and O3:H2O2:TCEP doses. The samples were tested at O3:TCEP molar ratios of 6:1, 15:1, and 30:1 and with O3:H2O2:TCEP molar ratios of 6:4.2:1, 15:10.5:1and to 30:21:1 respectively. Solution pHs of 4, 7, and 9 were investigated to cover the typical water and wastewater pH range. The Indigo Method was used to measure the starting ozone concentrations in sample water. TCEP concentrations were quantified by liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography (GC). Greater than 90% reduction of TCEP was achieved at equilibrium conditions with an O3:H2O2:TCEP molar ratio of 30:21:1 at all pH levels examined. Greater than 80% TCEP removal in diluted wastewater was observed at purified water to wastewater dilution of 4:1. The kinetics of oxidation of TCEP with ozone and ozone/hydrogen peroxide were explored in this research. It was found that the reaction rate constants of TCEP are lower than those of other contaminants typically found in water and wastewater. "


Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Degree Name



Civil & Environmental Engineering

Project Type


Date Accepted





ozone, hydrogen peroxide, TCEP, advanced oxidation