Faculty Advisor

Prof. Richard D. Sisson Jr

Faculty Advisor

Mohammed Maniruzzaman

Faculty Advisor

Ronald R. Biederman


"The performance of a series of mineral oil based quenchants has been investigated using the CHTE Quench Probe System and probe tips of 4140 steel to determine the cooling rate, heat transfer coefficient, Hardening Power (HP) and Tamura’s V indices in terms of the physical properties of quenchants; e.g. viscosity and oil start temperature. The Quench Factor, Q, was also calculated in terms of the hardness of the quenched parts. The lumped parameter approximation was used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient as a function of temperature during quenching. The results revealed that the maximum cooling rate increases with decrease in quenchant viscosity. As viscosity increases, Tamura’s V is nearly constant, while the HP decreases. For the selected oils, cooling ability of quenching oil increases with the increase in oil operating temperature, reaches a maximum and then decreases. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase in hardening power and maximum cooling rate. As the viscosity increases, the quench factor increases, which indicates the cooling ability of the oil decreases since the higher quench factor means the lower cooling ability of the oil. The hardness decreases with the increase in quench factor. Also the effect of surface oxides during quenching in commercial oils is studied. It was found that for 4140 steel probes the formation of oxide in air increases the cooling rate and heat transfer coefficient, the cooling rate curve of 4140 steel probe heated in argon shows clear Leidenfrost temperature, the oxide layer may require a significant thickness to cause the decrease in heat transfer coefficient. For 304 stainless steel probes the cooling rate and heat transfer coefficient are quite similar in air and in argon."


Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Degree Name



Materials Science & Engineering

Project Type


Date Accepted





Quenching, heat transfer, mineral oil, surface oxide, quenchant, Metals, Quenching, Probes (Electronic instruments), Mineral oils