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Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance


A modeling system for analyzing the integrated induction hardening processes was developed based on a general-purpose finite element program, with the capability to analyze the whole process from electromagnetic-induced thermal heating to final hardening. A coupled electromagnetic-thermal model was applied to study the induction heating process, which includes consideration of nonlinear material characteristics on temperature. Also, arrangement of AC current density distribution was conducted to simulate practical induction coil structure and magnetic concentrator effects to achieve desired heating patterns for later quenching and hardening analysis. Quenching analysis can provide cooling curve at any location in a heat-treated workpiece based on heat transfer principles. In hardening analysis, phase transformation was studied and an algorithm was developed to determine volumetric content of micro-structural constituents formed from austenitized phase in quenching process, based on analysis of the interaction between cooling curve and material time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. Finally, hardness value was converted from martensite content based on a developed formulation. Validation was preliminary conducted based on comparison of hardening pattern of induction hardening of an automotive spindle with complex surface.





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Copyright 2003, ASM International. This paper was published in Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance Vol. 12 Iss. 5 pp. 589-596 and is made available as an electronic reprint with the permission of, ASM International. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplications of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of this paper are prohibited.