Starting from forming methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) via hydriodic acid (HI), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and sonication. We then discuss the attempts to replace the iodide (I-) anion with tetraflouroborate (BF4-) and hexafluorophosphate (PF6-) via a solution method. Further on, the shift to methylammonium and formamidinium bismuth iodide (MA3Bi2I9 and FA3Bi2I9, respectively) is discussed, produced by spin coating and solvent evaporation. Bismuth iodide (BiI3), and bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) are formed by both chemical and physical vapor transport. Most samples obtained were confirmed via powder or crystal XRD (pXRD or cXRD respectively), and XPS, while a BiI3 sample was observed under Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) as well.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Major Qualifying Project
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Chemistry and Biochemistry