As the energy demand increases with a growing population and standards of living, more renewable energy will be incorporated into the grid to minimize the needs for fossil fuels, a finite resource. Due to the intermittent power generation of wind and solar energy, energy storage is required to store and release excess energy when needed. Liquid metal-air flow batteries show potential for grid-scale storage due to their high theoretical energy densities and long durations. Improvements were made to a previous design of a gallium-air battery that greatly extended its discharge period to more than 25 hours. However, the battery still suffers from electrolyte evaporation and carbonation that limits duration. Flow batteries are possible based on this design with electrolyte replenishment.
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